Literature Review

What Information Already Exists on the Topic?

            Multiple methods exist to approaching “How much is the average human worth?”.  Research previously conducted often came from the fields of organ trafficking, human trafficking, Islamic therapy for the mentally ill, Objectivism, arms trafficking, and the women’s rights in developing countries.  Throughout this essay the author will be pulling from all of these fields in order to reach a conclusion with the most accurate price for the commodity.

Organ trafficking facts came from Medical Transcription and Havoscope Black Market.  The first source approaches how countries price every organ from the scalp to a square inch of blood or from the gallbladder to a pair of eyeballs.  Medical Transcription shows how organ traffickers see human bodies as worth more dead than alive.  The chart that they provide on their website allows for Americans to read about organ trafficking stories that occurred in the borders of America.  Havoscope Black Market predominantly shows the price for a kidney or lung.  In this way, they compare different countries and the overall price of a dead body.

Other sources that will help determine the specific quantitative data pertaining to the female body is Dr. Loretta J. Standley website on the female reproduction system and Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity.  These two sources give details about specific female organs and developments that contribute to how they are treated.  Dr. Standley gives the precise number of eggs a women has and how many she is likely to fertilize.  This helps to identify the potential that woman carry within them.  Half the Sky:  Turning Oppression into Opportunity gives details pertaining to specific surgeries, how much families are willing to pay for females to go to a hospital, and why the hymen is so important in the developing world.

Human trafficking information comes from a multitude of sources due to the different approaches each takes.  Throughout the essay references will be made to the International Princess Project, Havoscope Black Market, Wendy Gallagher, A Rights Awareness and Legal Assistance Program in Four Districts of West Bengal study, Half the Sky:  Turning Oppression into Opportunity, Women’s Global Health and Human Rights, and the Department of State United States of America Report from 2011. The Havoscope Black Market provides the prices from different countries of contract killers, trafficked victims, illegal adoptions, and prostitutes.  Wendy Gallagher approaches human trafficking through awareness and forums between non-government organizations.  The predominant topic in these forums is how technology and the internet apply to human trafficking and how humans are sold like a pair of sneakers on Amazon.  She also focuses her personal research on immigration and how United States policies can be changed to enable a better life for immigrants than having them coerced into forced labor on farms upon their arrival in America.   A Rights Awareness and Legal Assistance Program in Four Districts of West Bengal study, Women’s Global Health and Human Rights, and the Department of State United States of America Report from 2011 all approach human trafficking through the statistics of different countries and thus labeling them tier 1, tier 2, or tier 3, dependent upon their willingness to help combat human trafficking.  These reports approach the legal aspects:  how many people are prosecuted, how many people are saved per year from being trafficked, and how many brothels have been taken down over the last year.  Half the Sky:  Turning Oppression into Opportunity uses personal stories to reach out to activists against human trafficking.  These stories help tell how authorities react to trafficking, how the community reacts, how different cultures train females to act, and how women have fought back.  The International Princess Project shows how women have gathered in one country to build their lives after being trafficked, and how they fight to keep their children from suffering the fate they had.  It also provides statistics specific to India, which is the country of focus throughout this essay, on human trafficking.

Sources that pertain to the spiritual aspect of this essay, the Islamic exorcism, come from the Scottish Journal of Arts, Social Sciences, and Scientific Studies as well as Simon Dien’s Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion Volume 24.  The first source approaches the different techniques that have been proven in the Islamic community to be qualified exorcisms and how they are carried out.  The Scottish Journal of Arts, Social Sciences, and Scientific Studies also describes which techniques have been proven futile.  Simon Dien’s research focuses on particular stories of exorcism:  what caused it, how it was treated, and how much did it cost.

The broader field of women’s rights is addressed through the research of Marilyn Waring in Review of If Women Counted:  A New Feminist Economics.  This source applies how different countries treat women, and how this has affected their opportunities in the working world.  This shows how women benefit society and how they benefit from society.

The Objectivism philosophy will be addressed through the personal work and lectures of Ayn Rand provided by the Ayn Rand Institute and her novels.  Novels referenced include:  The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged, and AnthemThe Fountainhead addresses the importance of the individual, of humanity, and of his value of his own selfish wishes.  Anthem addresses the importance of self-acknowledgement and of the same satisfaction that comes from fulfilling a selfish wish.  Atlas Shrugged addresses the relationship between man and society.  This relationship is demonstrated through how society works against a Capitalist mindset, how it works to destroy humanity, and how a human can experience true happiness.  The direct information provided on Objectivism comes from the Introduction of Objectivism given by Ayn Rand and What Makes Ayn Rand’s Philosophy Unique given by the Ayn Rand Institute.  Man’s Rights will also address this philosophy, but approach it through human rights and what each individual person possesses as a human being.

The calculation of the average human comes from Earl DeMott, a teacher in the Global Studies and World Languages Academy at Tallwood High School.  The research that he presented within a lecture was on Media Bias and how each individual has a different perspective based on learned and cultural characteristics.  According to Earl DeMott’s research, the average human is female, Muslim, and Asian.

Havoscope Black Market researched arms trafficking as well, which was utilized in the essay to know the price of individual weapons which have been sold illegally.  Weapons used in this essay will include nuclear as well as firearms.  Half the Sky:  Turning Oppression into Opportunity also touches on the subject of weapons, but in comparison of the risk militias face against one another and the risk they face when raping a village.  Havoscope Black Market takes a quantitative approach while Half the Sky:  Turning Oppression into Opportunity uses a personal story with an account of the misuse of weapons.

Throughout these eight sub-topics, Havoscope Black Market and Half the Sky:  Turning Oppression into Opportunity pre-dominate the research used.  This is to the wide range of information they provide.  Half the Sky:  Turning Oppression into Opportunity especially takes the limelight as it has personal stories from the authors’ experience with victims, non-government organizations, human traffickers, and authorities.  The fact that the authors were able to travel, to experience first hand the accounts of the victims, they were able to get primary sources that the author of this essay is unable to collect herself.

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